In Indian law, legislation was clearly integrated in 2016 on insolvency. Until then, insolvency
and bankruptcy issues were primarily handled in several codifications that laid down rules
that corresponded to the necessity of the defined code. For example, SARFAESI Act 2002
provided for the discharge by the bank liabilities for the secured creditor for its secured
interest, and Banks and Financial Institutes Act, 1993, laid down the rules on the recovery of
financial debts, as laid down by the SARFAESI Act 2013 provision for the winding-up of
Given the losses of the creditors in the absence of legal obligations in the event of non-
payment of the debt in due course, Parliament introduced in 2015 the Insolvency and
Insolvency Bill, approved in 2016 ('The Code'). The losses suffered by the creditors affected
the financial stability of both creditors and the economy by extension.
The Indian Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code ensures that the insolvency procedure for
companies, partnerships and individuals is legally binding and sustainable.
CORPORATE INSOLVENCY RESOLUTION PROCESS (CIRP)
A petition is presented to the National Company Law Tribunal. If, as stated above, a firm
fails to give its creditors payments, the creditors are entitled to make a request from the CIRP
before the judging authority. In the case of the corporate debtor, a National Corporate Law
Tribunal (hereafter referred to as the NCLT) will be the relevant Adjudicating Authority.
Once the petition is filed, the NCLT analyses whether it has or not a localus standi in front of
the tribunal. If the Court cannot discover any substance, such as the default in an application,
which does not comply, in accordance with Section 4 of the Code (currently the INR One
Crore, with the minimum INR One lakh barrier, the Court will refuse the request. However, if
the tribunal decides that the petition is feasible, it allows that (see points 7, 9 or 10 of the
Code) which leads the procedure to begin. Within 14 days after the submission of the
petition, NCLT shall call for the hearing.
The Professional Resolution (hereafter "PR"), as specified in Code 27, shall be a licenced
professional insolvency appointed and appointed to the creditors' committee. The NCLT
appoints the IRP till that time. The second stage in the procedure is that the company IRP will
carry out the rest of the insolvency process and ensure that businesses are a worry for the
It involves Moratorium: The term of moratorium begins when the tribunal admits the request.
In accordance with Section 14 of the Code on declaration of that period the tribunal forbids
Launching of new cases (in financial debt) for outstanding claims against the
The corporate debtor's defence of any operational, financial, legal or administrative
Any further foreclosure or recovery of corporate debt in accordance with the Act of
SARFAESI in 2002; and the recovery of any property he has at the time of the
bankruptcy procedure from the corporate debtor.
Recovery from the corporate debtor of any property that he possesses at the time of
the insolvency process.
The term of moratorium will continue till the conclusion of the CIRP procedure. Moratorium
period remains in subsistence till the time the CIRP process is concluded. The upper limit of
continuance of this period is 180 days with a possible extension of 90 days under exceptional
It involves Collation and analysis of the facts. The Insolvency Resolution Professional
systematically categorises and analyses the claims made by the petitioner under Article 18(b)
of the Code. If the IRP requests the petitioner to expose a claim, the Code permits the IRP to
summon the petitioner for clarification in respect of the request. In accordance with section
18(c) of the Code, the IRP is also obliged, within 30 days of the beginning of the CIRP, to
form the Creditors' Committee (COC). The committee then appoints an RP after the COC has
been established. Depending on the committee's judgement, the IRP can potentially maintain
the post or a new nomination might be made.
The Insolvency Resolution Professional /RP should follow a public notice by COC when it
collects and validates the petitioner's allegations. The notice indicates that the corporate
obligor is in an insolvency process and is asked to submit a resolution programme that may
possibly be executed to any interested candidates or bidders. These offerors might be
forward-looking investors, creditors, etc. The COC reads the same according to the number
of suggested resolution plans. The strategy for approving 75% of the COC will be submitted
to the NCLT. The plan is guaranteed.
The COC-approved resolution plan is submitted to the NCLT. The same is done and becomes
obligatory on the corporate debtor and all stakeholders if the NCLT penalises the authorised
resolution plan. In the absence of a resolution plan by the NCLT or the COC in the specified
term, the COC will be unable to finish its resolution plan. Then, within 1 year of the order,
the Court ordered the discharge of the corporate debtor.
In the context of the foregoing stages, the Code has succeeded in stabilising and structuring
the insolvency process. The lack of a mechanism was a critical shortcoming in insolvency
implementation before legislation became clear. The insolvency procedure is currently
simplified and includes a deadline to finish the advancement following implementation of the