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Indian Evidence Act, 1872


Foot NotesView Details
1Short title, extent and commencementView Details
10 Things said or done by conspirator in reference to common designView Details
10 Saving of provisions of Indian Succession Act, relating to willsView Details
101Burden of proofView Details
102On whom burden of proof liesView Details
103Burden of proof as to particular factView Details
104Burden of proving fact to be proved to make evidence admissibleView Details
105Burden of proving that case of accused comes within exceptionsView Details
106Burden of proving fact especially within knowledgeView Details
107Burden of proving death of person known to have been alive within thirty yearsView Details
108Burden of proving that person is alive who has not been heard of for seven yearsView Details
109Burden of proof as to relationship in the cases of partners, landlord and tenant, principal and agentView Details
11 When facts not otherwise relevant become relevantView Details
11 EstoppelView Details
11 Estoppel of tenant; and of license of person in possessionView Details
11 Estoppel of acceptor of bill of exchange, bailee or licenseeView Details
110Burden of proof as to ownershipView Details
111Proof of good faith in transactions where one party is in relation of active confidenceView Details
111APresumption as to certain offencesView Details
112Birth during marriage, conclusive proof of legitimacyView Details
113Proof of cession of territoryView Details
113APresumption as to abetment of suicide by a married womenView Details
113BPresumption as to dowry deathView Details
114Court may presume existence of certain actsView Details
114APresumption as to absence of consent in certain prosecutions for rapeView Details
118Who may testifyView Details
119Dumb witnessesView Details
12 In suits for damages, facts tending to enable Court to determine amount are relevantView Details
120Parties to civil suit, and their wives or husbands, Husbands or wife of person under criminal trialView Details
121Judges and MagistratesView Details
122Communications during marriageView Details
123Evidence as to affairs of StateView Details
124Official communicationsView Details
125Information as to commission of offencesView Details
126Professional communicationView Details
127Section 126 to apply to interpreters etcView Details
128Privilege not waived by volunteering evidenceView Details
129Confidential communications with legal advisersView Details
13 Facts relevant when right or custom is in questionView Details
13 Order of production and examination of witnessesView Details
13 Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidenceView Details
13 Examination in chiefView Details
13 Order of examinationsView Details
13 Cross-examination of person called to produce a documentView Details
130Production of title-deeds of witness not a partyView Details
131Production of documents or electronic records which another person, having possession, could refuse to produceView Details
132Witness not excused from answering on ground that answer will criminateView Details
133AccompliceView Details
134Number of witnessesView Details
14 Facts showing existence of state of mind, or of body or bodily feelingView Details
14 Witnesses to characterView Details
14 Leading questionsView Details
14 When they must not be askedView Details
14 When they may be askedView Details
14 Evidence as to matters in writingView Details
14 Cross-examination as to previous Statements in writingView Details
14 Questions lawful in cross-examinationView Details
14 When witness to be compelled to answerView Details
14 Court to decide when question shall be asked and when witness compelled to answerView Details
14 Question not to be asked without reasonable groundsView Details
15 Facts bearing on question whether act was accidental or intentionalView Details
15 Procedure of Court in case of question being asked without reasonable groundsView Details
15 Indecent and scandalous questionsView Details
15 Questions intended to insult or annoyView Details
15 Exclusion of evidence to contradict answers to questions testing veracityView Details
15 Question by party to his own witnessView Details
15 Impeaching credit of witnessView Details
15 Questions tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact, admissibleView Details
15 Former statements of witness may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to same factView Details
15 What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under section 32 or 33View Details
15 Refreshing memoryView Details
16 Existence of course of business when relevantView Details
16 Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section 159View Details
16 Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memoryView Details
16 Productions of documentsView Details
16 Giving, as evidence, of document called for and produced on noticeView Details
16 Using, as evidence, of document production of which was refused on noticeView Details
16 Judge's power to put questions or order productionView Details
16 Power of jury or assessors to put questionsView Details
167No new trial for improper admission or rejection or evidenceView Details
17 Admission definedView Details
18 Admission-by party to proceeding or his agentView Details
19 Admissions by persons whose position must be proved as against party to suitView Details
2Indian Evidence Act, 1872View Details
20 Admissions by persons expressly referred to by party to suitView Details
21 Proof of admissions against persons making them, and by or on their behalfView Details
22 When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevantView Details
22 When oral admission as to contents of electronic records are relevantView Details
23 Admission in civil cases relevantView Details
24 Confession caused by inducement, threat or promise when irrelevant in criminal proceedingsView Details
25 Confession to police officer not to be provedView Details
26 Confession by accused while in custody of police not to be proved against himView Details
27 How much of information received from accused may be provedView Details
28 Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat or promise, relevantView Details
29 Confession otherwise relevant not to become irrelevant because of promise of secrecy, etc.View Details
3Interpretation clauseView Details
30 Consideration of proved confession affecting person making it and others jointly under trial for same offenceView Details
31 Admission not conclusive proof, but may estopView Details
32 Cases in which statement of relevant fact by person who is dead or cannot be found, etc, is relevantView Details
33 Relevancy of certain evidence for proving, in subsequent proceeding, the truth of facts therein statedView Details
34 Entries in books of account when relevantView Details
34When cause of action arises for removal of supportView Details
35 Relevancy of entry in public record made in performance of dutyView Details
36 Relevancy of statements in maps, charts and plansView Details
37 Relevancy of statement as to fact of public nature, contained in certain acts or notificationsView Details
38 Relevancy of statements as to any law contained in law-booksView Details
39 What evidence to be given when statement forms part of a conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers.View Details
4May presumeView Details
40 Previous judgments relevant to bar a second suit or trialView Details
41 Relevancy of certain judgments in probate, etc. jurisdictionView Details
42 Relevancy and effect of judgments, orders or decrees, other than those mentioned in section 41View Details
43 Judgment, etc., other than those mentioned in sections 40 to 42, when relevantView Details
44 Fraud or collusion in obtaining judgment, or incompetency of Court, may be provedView Details
45 Opinions of expertsView Details
46 Facts bearing upon opinions of expertsView Details
47 Opinion as to handwriting, when relevantView Details
47 Opinion as to digital signature where relevantView Details
48 Opinion as to existence of right or custom, when relevantView Details
49 Opinion as to usage, tenets, etc., when relevantView Details
5 Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant factsView Details
5Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant factsView Details
50 Opinion on relationship, when relevantView Details
52 In civil cases character to prove conduct imputed, irrelevantView Details
53 In criminal cases previous good character relevantView Details
54 Previous bad character not relevant, except in replyView Details
55 Character as affecting damagesView Details
57Facts of which Court must take judicial noticeView Details
58Facts admitted need not be provedView Details
59 Proof of facts by oral evidenceView Details
6 Relevancy of facts forming part of same transactionView Details
60 Oral evidence must be directView Details
60Oral evidence must be directView Details
61Proof of contents of documentsView Details
62Primary evidenceView Details
63Secondary evidenceView Details
64Proof of documents by primary evidenceView Details
65Cases in which secondary evidence relating to documents may be givenView Details
65ASpecial provisions as to evidence relating to electronic recordView Details
65BAdmissibility of electronic recordsView Details
66Rules as to notice to produceView Details
67Proof of signature and handwriting of person alleged to have signed or written document producedView Details
67AProof as to digital signatureView Details
68Proof of execution of document required by law to be attestedView Details
69Proof where no attesting witness foundView Details
7 Facts which are the occasion, cause or effect of facts in issueView Details
70Admission of execution by party to attested documentView Details
71Proof when attesting witness denies the executionView Details
73Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or provedView Details
73AProofs as to verification of digital signatureView Details
74Public documentsView Details
75Private documentsView Details
76Certified copies of public documentsView Details
77Proof of documents by production of certified copiesView Details
78Proof of other official documentsView Details
79Presumption as to genuineness of certified copiesView Details
8 Motive, preparation and previous or subsequent conductView Details
80Presumption as to documents produced as record of evidenceView Details
81Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documentsView Details
81APresumption as to Gazettes in electronic formsView Details
82Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signatureView Details
83Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of GovernmentView Details
84Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisionsView Details
85Presumption as to powers-of-attorneyView Details
85APresumption as to electronic agreementsView Details
85BPresumption as to electronic record and digital signaturesView Details
85CPresumption as to Digital Signature CertificatesView Details
86Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial recordsView Details
87Presumption as to books, maps and chartsView Details
88Presumption as to books, maps and chartsView Details
88APresumption as to electronic messagesView Details
89Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not producedView Details
9 Facts necessary to explain or introduce relevant factsView Details
90Presumption as to documents thirty years oldView Details
90APresumption as to electronic records five year oldView Details
91 Evidence of terms of contracts, grants and other dispositions of property reduced to form of documentView Details
92 Exclusion of evidence of oral agreementView Details
93 Exclusion of evidence to explain or amend ambiguous documentView Details
94 Exclusion of evidence against application of document to existing factsView Details
95 Evidence as to document unmeaning in reference to existing factsView Details
96 Evidence as to application of language which can apply to one only of several personsView Details
97 Evidence as to application of language to one of two sets of facts, to neither of which the whole correctly appliesView Details
98 Evidence as to meaning of illegible characters, etc.View Details
99 Who may give evidence of agreement varying terms of documentView Details

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